Neuroscience


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0 Q&A 643 Views Aug 5, 2023

Sleep is not homogenous but contains a highly diverse microstructural composition influenced by neuromodulators. Prior methods used to measure neuromodulator levels in vivo have been limited by low time resolution or technical difficulties in achieving recordings in a freely moving setting, which is essential for natural sleep. In this protocol, we demonstrate the combination of electroencephalographic (EEG)/electromyographic (EMG) recordings with fiber photometric measurements of fluorescent biosensors for neuromodulators in freely moving mice. This allows for real-time assessment of extracellular neuromodulator levels during distinct phases of sleep with a high temporal resolution.




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