Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
1 Q&A 7578 Views Mar 20, 2020
In diseases such as glaucoma, the failure of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons to survive or regenerate their optic nerve axons underlies partial and, in some cases, complete vision loss. Optic nerve crush (ONC) serves as a useful model not only of traumatic optic neuropathy but also of glaucomatous injury, as it similarly induces RGC cell death and degeneration. Intravitreal injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) has been shown to specifically and efficiently transduce RGCs in vivo and has thus been proposed as an effective means of gene delivery for the treatment of glaucoma. Indeed, we and others routinely use AAV2 to study the mechanisms that promote neuroprotection and axon regeneration in RGCs following ONC. Herein, we describe a step-by-step protocol to assay RGC survival and regeneration in mice following AAV2-mediated transduction and ONC injury including 1) intravitreal injection of AAV2 viral vectors, 2) optic nerve crush, 3) cholera-toxin B (CTB) labeling of regenerating axons, 4) optic nerve clearing, 5) flat mount retina immunostaining, and 6) quantification of RGC survival and regeneration. In addition to providing all the materials and procedural details necessary to execute this protocol, we highlight its advantages over other similar published approaches and include useful tips to ensure its faithful reproduction in any modern laboratory.
0 Q&A 3551 Views Sep 5, 2019
Here, we describe an in vitro epithelial wound-healing assay using Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) technology. The ECIS technology is a real time cell growth assay based on a small (250 μm diameter) active gold electrode which resistance is measured continuously. When intestinal epithelial cells reach confluency on the gold electrode, resistances reach a plateau. For the wound-healing assays, confluent intestinal epithelial monolayers are subjected to a current of 40 kHz frequency, 1,400 μA amplitude, and 30-second duration. This kills the cells around the small active gold electrode, causing detachment and generating a wound that is healed by surrounding cells that have not been submitted to the current pulse. Wound healing is then assessed by continuous resistance measurements for approximately 30 h after wound. Both cell wounding and measurements of the subsequent healing process are carried out under computer control that takes online measurements each 30 s and stores the data. ECIS technology can be used to study the underlying causes for impaired mucosal healing and to test the efficacy of drugs in mucosal healing.

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