Developmental Biology


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0 Q&A 5205 Views Jun 5, 2020
Stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) by hormones and neurotransmitters elicits cellular responses, many of which result from alterations in the concentrations of cytosolic cAMP and Ca2+. Here, we describe a microplate reader fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that uses the genetically encoded biosensors H188 and YC3.60 so that it is possible to monitor the kinetics with which alterations of [cAMP] or [Ca2+] occur in monolayers or suspensions of living cells exposed to GPCR agonists. This protocol uses HEK293 cell lines doubly transfected with a FRET biosensor and a recombinant GPCR of interest (e.g., glucagon receptors, CCK2 receptors, or NPY2R receptors). The protocol allows for rapid screening of small molecule GPCR agonists and antagonists, and it is also useful for discovery of synthetic mono-, dual-, and tri- agonist peptides with GPCR activating properties.
0 Q&A 7931 Views Jan 20, 2019
Activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors by endogenous, exogenous (cannabis derivatives) or synthetic cannabinoids (i.e., CP 55.940, Win-2) has a wide variety of behavioral effects due to the presence of CB1 receptors in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques have been crucial for defining the CB1 receptor expression and localization at the cellular level. Nevertheless, more advanced methods are needed to reveal the precise topography of CB1 receptors in the brain, especially in unsuspected sites such as other cell types and organelles with low receptor expression (e.g., glutamatergic neurons, astrocytes, mitochondria). High-resolution immunoelectron microscopy provides a more precise detection method for the subcellular localization of CB1 receptors in the brain. Herein, we describe a single pre-embedding immunogold method for electron microscopy based on the use of specific CB1 receptor antibodies and silver-intensified 1.4 nm gold-labeled Fab' fragments, and a combined pre-embedding immunogold and immunoperoxidase method that employs biotinylated secondary antibodies and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex for the simultaneous localization of CB1 receptors and protein markers of specific brain cells or synapses (e.g., GFAP, GLAST, IBA-1, PSD-95, gephyrin). In addition, a post-embedding immunogold method is also described and compared to the pre-embedding labeling procedure. These methods provide a relatively easy and useful approach for revealing the subcellular localization of low amounts of CB1 receptors in glutamatergic synapses, astrocytes, neuronal and astrocytic mitochondria in the brain.

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