Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2085 Views May 20, 2022

The isolation of intact single adult cardiomyocytes from model animals, mouse and rat, is an essential tool for cardiac molecular and cellular research. While several methods are reported for adult mouse cardiomyocyte isolation, the viability and yield of the isolated cells have been variable. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols for high viability and yield cardiomyocyte isolation from mouse and rat, based on the use of a stable pressure Langendorff perfusion system. After the animal is euthanized or terminally anesthetized, the heart is removed from the chest and subject to Langendorff perfusion. Then, the heart is digested by perfusion with collagenase and hyaluronidase. After thorough digestion, the cardiomyocytes are dispersed and gradually recovered, the extracellular Ca2+ concentration adjusted, and cells are then ready for use. This protocol will facilitate research that requires isolated adult mouse and rat cardiomyocytes.

0 Q&A 2495 Views Nov 5, 2020

This protocol details the construction of a simple, low-cost, small-scale, multiplex chemostat system designed for the continuous cultivation of microorganisms in suspension (i.e., bacteria, yeast, microalgae). The continuous culture device can operate at a working volume of 25 ml and allows the run of 8 chemostats in parallel by a single person. It provides a platform for parallel, long-term studies of evolution and adaptation of microorganisms under the stress of antimicrobial agents and/or toxic pollutants. The system complies with the varied needs of researchers for an accessible, highly-throughput and reliable tool that is nevertheless easy to construct, use and operate, and not demanding of space, materials, medium supply and workload. Here, we also validate the use of this system to generate de novo resistance towards a novel antimicrobial and a commonly used antibiotic in an antimicrobial-sensitive model organism. We believe that this "Do It Yourself" (DIY) system may constitute a useful tool to address the global problem of antibiotic resistance and to develop non-antibiotic based therapies.

0 Q&A 7360 Views Jul 20, 2020
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, wherein the RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 can be directed to introduce double-stranded breaks (DSBs) at a targeted locus. In mammalian cells, these DSBs are typically repaired through error-prone processes, resulting in insertions or deletions (indels) at the targeted locus. Researchers can use these Cas9-mediated lesions to probe the consequences of loss-of-function perturbations in genes of interest. Here, we describe an optimized protocol to identify specific genes required for cancer cell fitness through a CRISPR-mediated cellular competition assay. Identifying these genetic dependencies is of utmost importance, as they provide potential targets for anti-cancer drug development. This protocol provides researchers with a robust and scalable approach to investigate gene dependencies in a variety of cell lines and cancer types and to validate the results of high-throughput or whole-genome screens.
0 Q&A 3958 Views Nov 5, 2019
Neglected tropical diseases gain the scientific interest of numerous research programs in an attempt to achieve their effective control or elimination. In this attempt, more cutting-edge public health policies and research are needed for the discovery of new, safer and effective drugs originated from natural products. Here, we describe protocols for the in vitro screening of a natural product-derived compound required for the determination of its antileishmanial potency. For this purpose, the Total Phenolic Fraction (TPF) derived from extra virgin olive oil is evaluated through the in vitro cell culture method against extracellular promastigote and intracellular amastigote Leishmania spp. forms. The aim of this article is to describe a step-by-step procedure that can be easily applied to accurately estimate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50), the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the selectivity index (SI) via the resazurin reduction assay. These protocols are based on the ability of resazurin (oxidized blue form) to be irreversibly reduced by enzymes in viable cells and generate a red fluorescent resorufin product and can be easily expanded to the investigation of the antimicrobial activity in other microorganisms.
0 Q&A 8950 Views Jan 20, 2019
In the presence of oxidative stress, cellular defense systems that can detoxify reactive oxygen species are activated through multiple signaling cascades and transcriptional reprogramming. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an excellent model for genetically-identifying factors important for the response to oxidative stress. Here, we describe two assays for testing yeast gene deletion strains or strains overexpressing a gene of interest for viability following oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. These include a plate-based spot assay for visualizing cell growth and a quantitative colony counting assay. As stress response assays can be highly variable depending on cell growth conditions, these protocols have been optimized for obtaining highly-reproducible results between experiments. We demonstrate the use of these protocols for genetic tests of a putative chromatin regulator implicated in regulating the transcriptional response to oxidative stress.

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