Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2627 Views Jul 5, 2021

Phlebotomine vectors, sand flies of the order Diptera, are known to transmit Leishmania parasites as well as RNA viruses (arboviruses) to humans. The arbovirus, Icoaraci Phlebovirus (BeAN 24262 - ICOV), used in this study was isolated from Nectomys rodents, a mammalian species that is the same natural sylvatic reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. This Leishmania species is distributed in primary and secondary forests in Brazil and other countries in America and causes localized and diffuse anergic skin lesions. In our recent studies, we observed an aggravation of the protozoan infection by ICOV through the modulation of cytokine expression, such as IL-10 and IFN-β, enhancing the parasite load and possibly the pathogenesis. Efficient viral production and quantitation had to be developed and standardized to ensure that immuno-molecular assays provide consistent and reproducible viral infection results. The standardization of these procedures becomes a particularly useful tool in research, with several applications in understanding the interaction between the host cell and Phlebovirus, as well as co-infections, allowing the study of intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we detail a protocol that allows the production and quantitation of the Icoaraci Phlebovirus using BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and subsequent infection of peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice.

0 Q&A 9847 Views Dec 5, 2019
Given the endemic seroprevalence of herpes simplex viruses (HSV), its associated human diseases, and the emergence of acyclovir-resistant strains, there is a continuous need for better antiviral therapies. Towards this aim, identifying mechanistic details of how HSV-1 manipulates infected cells, how it modulates the immune responses, and how it causes diseases are essential. Measuring titers and growth kinetics of clinical isolates and viral mutants are important for a thorough characterization of viral phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. We provide protocols for the preparation as well as titration of HSV-1 stocks, and explain how to perform single-step growth curves to characterize the functions of viral proteins or host factors during infection. In particular, we describe methods to prepare and characterize high-titer HSV-1 stocks with low genome to titer ratios that are required for infection studies in cell culture and animal experiments.
0 Q&A 5081 Views May 20, 2019
In virology the difference between the fitness of two viruses can be determined by using various methods, such as virus titer, growth curve analysis, measurement of virus infectivity, analysis of produced RNA copies and viral protein production. However, for closely performing viruses, it is often very hard to distinguish the differences. In vitro competition assays are a sensitive tool for determining viral replication fitness for many viruses replicating in cell culture. Relative viral replication fitness is usually measured from multiple cycle growth competition assays. Competition assays provide a sensitive measurement of viral fitness since the viruses are competing for cellular targets under identical growth conditions. This protocol describes a competition assay for enteroviruses and contains two alternative formats for initial infections, which can be varied depending on specific goals for each particular experiment. The protocol involves infection of cells with competing viruses, passaging, RNA extraction from infected cells, RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing followed by comparative analysis of resulting chromatograms obtained under various initial infection conditions. The techniques are applicable to members of many virus families, such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, pestiviruses, and other RNA viruses with an established reverse genetics system.
1 Q&A 9760 Views Dec 20, 2018
Since the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America and the US in 2016, this flavivirus has emerged as a major threat for public health. Indeed, it is now clear that ZIKV is vertically transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus and this may lead to severe neurological development defects including (but not restricted to) neonate microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been identified in the late 1940s, very little was known about its epidemiology, symptoms and molecular biology before its reemergence 60 years later. Recently, tremendous efforts have been made to develop molecular clones and tools as well as cell culture and animal models to better understand ZIKV fundamental biology and pathogenesis and to develop so-far-unavailable antiviral drugs and vaccines. This bio-protocol describes basic experimental procedures to produce ZIKV stocks and to quantify their concentration in infectious virus particles as well as to image and study this pathogen within infected cells using confocal microscopy-based imaging.
3 Q&A 19681 Views Nov 5, 2018
Lentiviruses are used very widely to generate stable expression mammalian cell lines. They are used for both gene down-regulation (by using shRNA) or for gene up-regulation (by using ORF of gene of interest). The technique of generating stable cell lines using 3rd generation lentivirus is very robust and it typically takes about 1-2 weeks to get stable expression for most mammalian cell lines. The advantage of using the 3rd generation lentivirus are that are very safe and they are replication incompetent.
0 Q&A 5751 Views Sep 20, 2018
Sendai virus is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, and an enveloped virus with a negative-stranded RNA genome. Sendai virus is not pathogenic to humans, but for mice and can cause pneumonia in mice. Easy and efficient techniques for propagating Sendai virus are required for studying virus replication, virus-induced innate- and adaptive-immunity, Sendai-virus-based virotherapy and IgA nephropathy. Here, we describe a protocol for Sendai virus propagation using chicken eggs. This traditional protocol enables us to generate a large amount of virus enough for animal experiments as well as cell culture experiments in a relatively inexpensive way.

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