Environmental science


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0 Q&A 371 Views Jun 20, 2023

Mandelonitrile is a nitrogen-containing compound, considered an essential secondary metabolite. Chemically, it is a cyanohydrin derivative of benzaldehyde, with relevant functions in different physiological processes including defense against phytophagous arthropods. So far, procedures for detecting mandelonitrile have been effectively applied in cyanogenic plant species such as Prunus spp. Nevertheless, its presence in Arabidopsis thaliana, considered a non-cyanogenic species, has never been determined. Here, we report the development of an accurate protocol for mandelonitrile quantification in A. thaliana within the context of A. thaliana–spider mite interaction. First, mandelonitrile was isolated from Arabidopsis rosettes using methanol; then, it was derivatized by silylation to enhance detection and, finally, it was quantified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The selectivity and sensitivity of this method make it possible to detect low levels of mandelonitrile (LOD 3 ppm) in a plant species considered non-cyanogenic that, therefore, will have little to no cyanogenic compounds, using a small quantity of starting material (≥100 mg).

0 Q&A 5196 Views Aug 20, 2018
Insect pollinators, herbivores and their natural enemies use olfactory cues emitted by their host plants to locate them. In insect-plant ecology, understanding the mechanisms underlying these interactions are of critical importance, as this bio-communication has both ecological and agricultural applications. However, the first step in such research is to identify and quantify the insect community associated with the plant/s species of interest. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by a variety of insect trapping methods, either using pitfall traps, or sticky traps, or sweep nets in field. The data collected from these traps tend to be incomplete, and also damage the specimens, making them unusable for any taxonomic purposes. This protocol derives ideas from these traditional traps and use a combination of three easily made inexpensive modified traps that conceals the host plant, but allows the plant volatiles to pass through as olfactory cues. These traps are economical, can be made to fit with most plant sizes, and are also reusable. Collectively, these traps will provide a solid estimate (quantifiable) of all associated community of arthropods that can also be stored for future studies.

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