Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2624 Views Jul 5, 2021

Phlebotomine vectors, sand flies of the order Diptera, are known to transmit Leishmania parasites as well as RNA viruses (arboviruses) to humans. The arbovirus, Icoaraci Phlebovirus (BeAN 24262 - ICOV), used in this study was isolated from Nectomys rodents, a mammalian species that is the same natural sylvatic reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. This Leishmania species is distributed in primary and secondary forests in Brazil and other countries in America and causes localized and diffuse anergic skin lesions. In our recent studies, we observed an aggravation of the protozoan infection by ICOV through the modulation of cytokine expression, such as IL-10 and IFN-β, enhancing the parasite load and possibly the pathogenesis. Efficient viral production and quantitation had to be developed and standardized to ensure that immuno-molecular assays provide consistent and reproducible viral infection results. The standardization of these procedures becomes a particularly useful tool in research, with several applications in understanding the interaction between the host cell and Phlebovirus, as well as co-infections, allowing the study of intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we detail a protocol that allows the production and quantitation of the Icoaraci Phlebovirus using BHK-21 cells (baby hamster kidney cells) and subsequent infection of peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice.

0 Q&A 3078 Views Nov 5, 2020

With the objective to isolate phages infecting wine bacterial spoilers, we designed a method for the isolation and purification of phages infecting grape-associated bacteria. The method proved successful to isolate GC1 tectivirus infecting the acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter cerinus. The isolated phage represents a new genus within the Tectiviridae, named "Gammatectivirus". Using a traditional technique for the concentration of phage particles involving several steps of centrifugation, further insights in the ultrastructure of GC1 could be observed by cryo electron microscopy, saving time and effort. The simple workflow presented may be applied to other viruses infecting bacteria inhabiting other vegetal niches.

Graphic abstract

Flowchart illustrating the protocol to isolate, concentrate and observe GC1 under cryo-EM

1 Q&A 9759 Views Dec 20, 2018
Since the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America and the US in 2016, this flavivirus has emerged as a major threat for public health. Indeed, it is now clear that ZIKV is vertically transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus and this may lead to severe neurological development defects including (but not restricted to) neonate microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been identified in the late 1940s, very little was known about its epidemiology, symptoms and molecular biology before its reemergence 60 years later. Recently, tremendous efforts have been made to develop molecular clones and tools as well as cell culture and animal models to better understand ZIKV fundamental biology and pathogenesis and to develop so-far-unavailable antiviral drugs and vaccines. This bio-protocol describes basic experimental procedures to produce ZIKV stocks and to quantify their concentration in infectious virus particles as well as to image and study this pathogen within infected cells using confocal microscopy-based imaging.

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