Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 2626 Views Jun 5, 2021

Maturation of secretory granules is a crucial process that ensures the bioactivity of cargo proteins undergoing regulated secretion. In Drosophila melanogaster, the larval salivary glands produce secretory granules that are up to four-fold larger in cross-sectional area after maturation. Therefore, we developed a live imaging microscopy approach to quantitate the size of secretory granules with a view to identifying genes involved in their maturation. Here, we describe the procedures of larval salivary gland dissection and sample preparation for live imaging with a fluorescence confocal microscope. Furthermore, we describe the workflow for measuring the size of secretory granules by cross-sectional surface area and statistical analysis. Our live imaging microscopy method provides a reliable read-out for the status of secretory granule maturation in Drosophila larval salivary glands.

0 Q&A 3731 Views Apr 5, 2020
Ascidians are the closest living relatives of vertebrates (Delsuc et al., 2006; Satoh et al., 2014) and are important for the evolutionary study of the ovarian follicle development including oocyte maturation and ovulation. However, neither the endogenous factors nor the molecular mechanisms underlying the oocyte maturation and ovulation had been elucidated mainly due to the lack of efficient procedure for isolating ovarian follicles. Here, we present the protocol for the effective fractionation and isolation of the ovarian follicle of Ciona intestinalis type A using stainless steel sieves with various particle size-meshes, and the simple incubation method of Ciona follicles for evaluating oocyte maturation and ovulation. Combined with the RNA-seq data from each fraction, the current methods lead us to investigate ovarian follicle development including oocyte maturation and ovulation in a stage-specific manner.
2 Q&A 5313 Views Feb 5, 2020
A tooth germ ex vivo organ culture allows visualization of its development in different stages, thus enabling investigation of the molecular mechanisms of regulatory factors. Tooth germs can be rapidly dissected from E13 mouse embryos and placed on cell culture inserts for observation of subsequent tooth germ development in a three-dimensional situation in real time. This method is also suitable for other organs that develop by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, including salivary gland, hair, lung, and kidney. In addition, siRNAs or growth factors can be easily added to ex vivo tooth germ cultures to investigate the detailed molecular function of specific genes. The present protocol provides an efficient and practical method for isolation and ex vivo culture of embryonic tooth germs.
0 Q&A 5991 Views Feb 20, 2018
Here, we present a detailed protocol on setting up embryonic renal organ cultures using a culture method that we have optimised for anatomical maturation and imaging. Our culture method places kidney rudiments on glass in a thin film of medium, which results in very flat cultures with all tubules in the same image plane. For reasons not yet understood, this technique results in improved renal maturation compared to traditional techniques. Typically, this protocol will result in an organ formed with distinct cortical and medullary regions as well as elongated, correctly positioned loops of Henle. This article describes our method and provides detailed advice. We have published qualitative and quantitative evaluations on the performance of the technique in Sebinger et al. (2010) and Chang and Davies (2012).

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