Microbiology


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0 Q&A 346 Views Jun 5, 2024

Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, is caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania. Upon its transmission through a sandfly bite, Leishmania binds and enters host phagocytic cells, ultimately resulting in a cutaneous or visceral form of the disease. The limited therapeutics available for leishmaniasis, in combination with this parasite’s techniques to evade the host immune system, call for exploring various methods to target this infection. To this end, our laboratory has been characterizing how Leishmania is internalized by phagocytic cells through the activation of multiple host cell signaling pathways. This protocol, which we use routinely for our experiments, delineates how to infect mammalian macrophages with either promastigote or amastigote forms of the Leishmania parasite. Subsequently, the number of intracellular parasites, external parasites, and macrophages can be quantified using immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-automated analysis protocols. Studying the pathways that underlie Leishmania uptake by phagocytes will not only improve our understanding of these host–pathogen interactions but may also provide a foundation for discovering additional treatments for leishmaniasis.

0 Q&A 4451 Views Feb 5, 2021

Over the last decade, it has been noticed that microbial pathogens and pests deliver small RNA (sRNA) effectors into their host plants to manipulate plant physiology and immunity for infection, known as cross kingdom RNA interference. In this process, fungal and oomycete parasite sRNAs hijack the plant ARGONAUTE (AGO)/RNA-induced silencing complex to post-transcriptionally silence host target genes. We hereby describe the methodological details of how we recovered cross kingdom sRNA effectors of the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis during infection of its host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This Bio-protocol contains two parts: first, a detailed description on the procedure of plant AGO/sRNA co-immunopurification and sRNA recovery for Illumina high throughput sequencing analysis. Second, we explain how to perform bioinformatics analysis of sRNA sequence reads using a Galaxy server. In principle, this protocol is suitable to investigate AGO-bound sRNAs from diverse host plants and plant-interacting (micro)organisms.

0 Q&A 7773 Views Jul 5, 2017
We performed an assay to test the ability of different E. coli strains to survive inside amoebal cells after ingestion. In the assay we incubated bacteria together with cells of Dictyostelium discoideum for six hours. After co-incubation most of the uningested bacteria were removed by centrifugation and the remaining uningested bacteria were killed by gentamicin. Gentamicin is used because it does not penetrate into eukaryotic cells allowing the ingested bacteria to survive the antibiotic treatment, whereas bacteria outside the amoebal cells are killed.



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