Cell Biology


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0 Q&A 381 Views Jun 20, 2024

The intricate composition, heterogeneity, and hierarchical organization of the human bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment (HME) present challenges for experimentation, which is primarily due to the scarcity of HME-forming cells, notably bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The limited understanding of non-hematopoietic cell phenotypes complicates the unraveling of the HME’s intricacies and necessitates a precise isolation protocol for systematic studies. The protocol presented herein puts special emphasis on the accuracy and high quality of BMSCs obtained for downstream sequencing analysis. Utilizing CD45 and CD235a as negative markers ensures sufficient enrichment of non-hematopoietic cells within the HME. By adding positive selection based on CD271 expression, this protocol allows for selectively isolating the rare and pivotal bona fide stromal cell population with high precision. The outlined step-by-step protocol provides a robust tool for isolating and characterizing non-hematopoietic cells, including stromal cells, from human bone marrow preparations. This approach thus contributes valuable information to promote research in a field that is marked by a scarcity of studies and helps to conduct important experimentation that will deepen our understanding of the intricate cellular interactions within the bone marrow niche.

0 Q&A 1795 Views Sep 20, 2023

Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is a prevalent pathology in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Currently, there are no therapies to prevent IBD, and available therapies to treat IBD are often sub-optimal. Thus, an unmet need exists to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal tissue responses to damage and regeneration. The recent development of single-cell RNA (sc-RNA) sequencing-based techniques offers a unique opportunity to shed light on novel signaling pathways and cellular states that govern tissue adaptation or maladaptation across a broad spectrum of diseases. These approaches require the isolation of high-quality cells from tissues for downstream transcriptomic analyses. In the context of intestinal biology, there is a lack of protocols that ensure the isolation of epithelial and non-epithelial compartments simultaneously with high-quality yield. Here, we report two protocols for the isolation of epithelial and stromal cells from mouse and human colon tissues under inflammatory conditions. Specifically, we tested the feasibility of the protocols in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and in human biopsies from Crohn’s patients. We performed sc-RNA sequencing analysis and demonstrated that the protocol preserves most of the epithelial and stromal cell types found in the colon. Moreover, the protocol is suitable for immunofluorescence staining of surface markers for epithelial, stromal, and immune cell lineages for flow cytometry analyses. This optimized protocol will provide a new resource for scientists to study complex tissues such as the colon in the context of tissue damage and regeneration.


Key features

• This protocol allows the isolation of epithelial and stromal cells from colon tissues.

• The protocol has been optimized for tissues under inflammatory conditions with compromised cell viability.

• This protocol is suitable for experimental mouse models of colon inflammation and human biopsies.


Graphical overview



Graphical representation of the main steps for the processing of colon tissue from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice (upper panel) and frozen biopsies from Crohn’s patients (lower panel)

0 Q&A 1339 Views Apr 5, 2022

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium, which causes gastrointestinal disorders in humans, and systemic, typhoid fever-like infections in mice. Our current knowledge regarding the involvement of cellular and humoral immunity in the defense from S. Typhimurium infections is largely based on animal models with attenuated strains. Cells of the innate immune system act as one of the first barriers in the defense from bacteria. We established a robust experimental model for the characterization of these cell types and their response during host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, this protocol focuses on the characterization of macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils in the spleens of infected animals by employing multi-color flow cytometry.

0 Q&A 1597 Views Mar 20, 2022

Spontaneous DNA damage frequently occurs on the human genome, and it could alter gene expression by inducing mutagenesis or epigenetic changes. Therefore, it is highly desired to profile DNA damage distribution on the human genome and identify the genes that are prone to DNA damage. Here, we present a novel single-cell whole-genome amplification method which employs linear-copying followed by a split-amplification scheme, to efficiently remove amplification errors and achieve accurate detection of DNA damage in individual cells. In comparison to previous methods that measure DNA damage, our method uses a next-generation sequencing platform to detect misincorporated bases derived from spontaneous DNA damage with single-cell resolution.

0 Q&A 3497 Views Apr 20, 2021

Experimental results in fungal biology research are usually obtained as average measurements across whole populations of cells, whilst ignoring what is happening at the single cell level. Microscopy has allowed us to study single-cell behavior, but it has low throughput and cannot be used to select individual cells for downstream experiments. Here we present a method that allows for the analysis and selection of single fungal cells in high throughput by flow cytometry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), respectively. This protocol can be adapted for every fungal species that produces cells of up to 70 microns in diameter. After initial setting of the flow cytometry gates, which takes a single day, accurate single cell analysis and sorting can be performed. This method yields a throughput of thousands of cells per second. Selected cells can be subjected to downstream experiments to study single-cell behavior.

0 Q&A 9876 Views May 20, 2019
Mammalian cell transfection is a powerful technique commonly used in molecular biology to express exogenous DNA or RNA in cells and study gene and protein function. Although several transfection strategies have been developed, there is a wide variation with regards to transfection efficiency, cell toxicity and reproducibility. Thus, a sensitive and robust method that can optimize transfection efficiency based not only on expression of the target protein of interest but also on the uptake of the nucleic acids, can be an important tool in molecular biology. Herein, we present a simple, rapid and robust flow cytometric method that can be used as a tool to optimize transfection efficiency while overcoming limitations of prior established methods that quantify transfection efficiency.
0 Q&A 7135 Views May 20, 2018
The ability to conduct investigation of cellular transcription, signaling, and function at the single-cell level has opened opportunities to examine heterogeneous populations at unprecedented resolutions. Although methods have been developed to evaluate high-dimensional transcriptomic and proteomic data (relating to cellular mRNA and protein), there has not been a method to evaluate corresponding high-dimensional functionomic data (relating to cellular functions) from single cells. Here, we present a protocol to quantitatively measure the differentiation potentials of single human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and then cluster the cells according to these measurements. High dimensional functionomic analysis of cell potential allows cell function to be linked to molecular mechanisms within the same progenitor population.
0 Q&A 9453 Views Jun 5, 2017
The main obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients is post-integration latency (Finzi et al., 1999). Antiretroviral treatments target only actively replicating virus, while latent infections that have low or no transcriptional activity remain untreated (Sedaghat et al., 2007). To eliminate viral reservoirs, one strategy focuses on reversing HIV-1 latency via ‘shock and kill’ (Deeks, 2012). The basis of this strategy is to overcome the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 latency by therapeutically inducing viral gene and protein expression under antiretroviral therapy and to cause selective cell death via the lytic properties of the virus, or the immune system now recognizing the infected cells. Recently, a number of studies have described the therapeutic potential of pharmacologically inhibiting members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of human bromodomain proteins (Filippakopoulos et al., 2010; Dawson et al., 2011; Delmore et al., 2011) that include BRD2, BRB3, BRD4 and BRDT. Small-molecule BET inhibitors, such as JQ1 (Filippakopoulos et al., 2010; Delmore et al., 2011), I-BET (Nicodeme et al., 2010), I-Bet151 (Dawson et al., 2011), and MS417 (Zhang et al., 2012) successfully activate HIV transcription and reverse viral latency in clonal cell lines and certain primary T-cell models of latency. To identify the mechanism by which BET proteins regulate HIV-1 latency, we utilized small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that target BRD2, BRD4 and Cyclin T1, which is a component of the critical HIV-1 cofactor positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and interacts with BRD2, and tested them in the CD4+ J-Lat A2 and A72 cell lines. The following protocol describes a flow cytometry-based method to determine the amount of transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR upon shRNA knockdown. This protocol is optimized for studying latently HIV-1-infected Jurkat (J-Lat) cell lines.
0 Q&A 10420 Views May 20, 2017
The main obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients is post-integration latency (Finzi et al., 1999). Antiretroviral treatments target only actively replicating virus, while latent infections that have low or no transcriptional activity remain untreated (Sedaghat et al., 2007). A combination of antiretroviral treatments with latency-purging strategies may accelerate the depletion of latent reservoirs and lead to a cure (Geeraert et al., 2008). Current strategies to reactivate HIV-1 from latency include use of prostratin, a non-tumor-promoting phorbol ester (Williams et al., 2004), BET inhibitors (Filippakopoulos et al., 2010; Delmore et al., 2011), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (i.e., SAHA or Vorinostat) (Kelly et al., 2003; Archin et al., 2009; Contreras et al., 2009; Edelstein et al., 2009). As the mechanisms of HIV-1 latency are diverse, effective reactivation may require combinatorial strategies (Quivy et al., 2002). The following protocol describes a flow cytometry-based method to quantify transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) upon drug treatment. This protocol is optimized for studying latently HIV-1-infected Jurkat (J-Lat) cell lines that contain a GFP cassette. J-Lats that contain a different reporter, for example Luciferase, can be treated with drugs as described but have to be analyzed differently.



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