Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 517 Views Jun 20, 2024

The Auxin-inducible degron (AID) system is a genetic tool that induces rapid target protein depletion in an auxin-dependent manner. Recently, two advanced AID systems—the super-sensitive AID and AID 2—were developed using an improved pair of synthetic auxins and mutated TIR1 proteins. In these AID systems, a nanomolar concentration of synthetic auxins is sufficient as a degradation inducer for target proteins. However, despite these advancements, AID systems still require the fusion of an AID tag to the target protein for degradation, potentially affecting its function and stability. To address this limitation, we developed an affinity linker–based super-sensitive AID (AlissAID) system using a single peptide antibody known as a nanobody. In this system, the degradation of GFP- or mCherry-tagged target proteins is induced in a synthetic auxin (5-Ad-IAA)–dependent manner. Here, we introduce a simple method for generating AlissAID strains targeting GFP or mCherry fusion proteins in budding yeasts.

0 Q&A 623 Views Aug 5, 2023

High yield of good quality plasmid DNA from gram -ve bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, and Rhizobium sp.) and gram +ve bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis) is difficult. The widely used plasmid extraction kits for Escherichia coli yield a low quantity of poor-quality plasmid DNA from these species. We have optimized an in-house modification of the QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit protocol of Qiagen, consisting of two extraction steps. In the first, the centrifugation after adding neutralization buffer is followed by ethanol (absolute) precipitation of plasmid DNA. In the second extraction step, the precipitated DNA is dissolved in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer, followed by an addition of 0.5 volumes of 5 M sodium chloride and 0.1 volumes of 20% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate. After incubation at 65 °C for 15 min, the plasmid DNA is extracted with an equal volume of chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (CIA). RNase (20 mg/mL) is added to the upper phase retrieved after centrifugation and is incubated at 37 °C for 15 min. The extraction of the plasmid DNA with an equal volume of CIA is followed by centrifugation and is precipitated from the retrieved upper phase by adding an equal volume of absolute ethanol. The pellet obtained after centrifugation is washed twice with 70% (v/v) ethanol, air dried, dissolved in TE buffer, and quantified. This easy-to-perform protocol is free from phenol extraction, density gradient steps, and DNA binding columns, and yields high-quality plasmid DNA. The protocol opens an easy scale up to yield a large amount of high-quality plasmid DNA, useful for high-throughput downstream applications.

Key features

• The protocol is free from density gradient steps and use of phenol.

• The protocol is an extension of the QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit (Qiagen) and is applicable for plasmid DNA isolation from difficult-to-extract bacterial species.

• The protocol facilitates the direct transformation of the ligation product into Agrobacterium by skipping the step of E. coli transformation.

• The plasmids isolated are of sequencing grade and the method is useful for extracting plasmids for metagenomic studies.

Graphical overview

Overview of the plasmid isolation protocol (modified QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit) of the present study

0 Q&A 1433 Views Oct 20, 2021

The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an excellent genetically tractable model organism used in the study of conserved eukaryotic cellular biology. One genetic tool in the assessment of gene function is the in vivo overexpression of proteins. Existing overexpression tools have limitations of induction kinetics, dynamic range, and/or system-wide changes due to the induction conditions or inducer. Here, I describe the methodology for the use of a plasmid-based long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-regulated overexpression system that is induced by the addition of thiamine. This system, termed the pTIN-system (thiamine inducible), utilizes the fast repression kinetics of the thiamine-regulated nmt1+ promoter integrated with the lncRNA regulated tgp1+ promoter. The advantages of the pTIN-system are rapid induction kinetics of gene expression, broad dynamic range, and tunable expression.

0 Q&A 4063 Views Apr 5, 2020
Roseburia and Eubacterium species of the human gut microbiota play an important role in the maintaince of human health, partly by producing butyrate, the main energy source of our colonic epithelial cells. However, our knowledge of the biochemistry and physiology of these bacteria has been limited by a lack of genetic manipulation techniques. Conjugative transposons previously introduced into Roseburia species could not be easily modified, greatly limiting their applicability as genetic modification platforms. Modular plasmid shuttle vectors have previously been developed for Clostridium species, which share a taxonomic order with Roseburia and Eubacterium, raising the possibility that these vectors could be used in these organisms. Here, we describe an optimized conjugation protocol enabling the transfer of autonomously replicating plasmids from an E. coli donor strain into Roseburia inulinivorans and Eubacterium rectale. The modular nature of the plasmids and their ability to be maintained in the recipient bacterium by autonomous replication makes them ideal for investigating heterologous gene expression, and as a platform for other genetic tools including antisense RNA silencing or mobile group II interon gene disruption strategies.
0 Q&A 11526 Views May 5, 2017
Plasmid stability can be measured using antibiotic-resistance plasmid derivatives by positive selection. However, highly stable plasmids are below the sensitivity range of these assays. To solve this problem we describe a novel, highly sensitive method to measure plasmid stability based on the selection of plasmid-free cells following elimination of plasmid-containing cells. The assay proposed here is based on an aph-parE cassette. When synthesized in the cell, the ParE toxin induces cell death. ParE synthesis is controlled by a rhamnose-inducible promoter. When bacteria carrying the aph-parE module are grown in media containing rhamnose as the only carbon source, ParE is synthesized and plasmid-containing cells are eliminated. Kanamycin resistance (aph) is further used to confirm the absence of the plasmid in rhamnose grown bacteria.

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