Protocols in Current Issue
Protocols in Past Issues
0 Q&A 3880 Views Aug 5, 2020
We have previously described the development of two specialized Escherichia coli strains for high-level recombinant membrane protein (MP) production. These engineered strains, termed SuptoxD and SuptoxR, are capable of suppressing the cytotoxicity caused by MP overexpression and of producing greatly enhanced MP yields. Here, we present a Bio-protocol that describes gene overexpression and culturing conditions that maximize the accumulation of membrane-integrated and well-folded recombinant MPs in these strains.
0 Q&A 10499 Views Sep 5, 2018
There exists a wide variety of techniques to isolate and purify viral particles from cell culture supernatants. However, these techniques vary greatly in ease of use, purity, yield and impact on viral structural integrity. Most importantly, it is becoming evident that secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) co-purify with retroviruses using nearly all purification methods due to nearly indistinguishable biophysical characteristics such as size, buoyant density and nucleic acid content. Recently, our group has illustrated a means of isolating intact and highly enriched retroviral virions from EV-containing cell supernatants using an immunoprecipitation approach targeting the viral envelope glycoprotein of the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (Renner et al., 2018). This technique, that we call intact virion immunoprecipitation (IVIP), enabled us to characterize the accessibility of epitopes on the surface of these retroviruses and assess the orientation of the virus-encoded integral membrane protein Glycogag (gPr80) in the viral envelope. Proper implementation of this protocol enables fast, simple and reproducible preparations of intact and highly purified retroviral particles devoid of detectable EV contaminants.
0 Q&A 8252 Views Aug 5, 2017
We describe here in detail a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)-based method to determine N-acetylmuramic acid-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P) in bacterial cell extracts. The method can be applied to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and as an example we use Escherichia coli cells in this study. Wild type and mutant cells are grown for a defined time in a medium of choice and harvested by centrifugation. Then the cells are disintegrated and soluble cell extracts are generated. After removal of proteins by precipitation with acetone, the extracts are analyzed by HPLC-MS. Base peak chromatograms of wild type and mutant cell extracts are used to determine a differential ion spectrum that reveals differences in the MurNAc-6P content of the two samples. Determination of peak areas of extracted chromatograms of MurNAc-6P ((M-H)- = 372.070 m/z in negative ion mode) allows quantifying MurNAc-6P levels, that are used to calculate recycling rates of the MurNAc-content of peptidoglycan.
0 Q&A 7433 Views Feb 5, 2017
Dozens of Mycoplasma species, belonging to class Mollicutes form a protrusion at a pole as an organelle. They bind to solid surfaces through the organelle and glide in the direction by a unique mechanism including repeated cycles of bind, pull, and release with sialylated oligosaccharides on host animal cells. The mechanical characters are critical information to understand this unique mechanism involved in their infectious process. In this protocol, we describe a method to measure the force generated by Mycoplasma mobile, the fastest gliding species in Mycoplasma. This protocol should be useful for the studies of many kinds of gliding microorganisms.

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