Neuroscience

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Protocol to Study Spatial Subgoal Learning Using Escape Behavior in Mice
    Authors:  Philip Shamash and Tiago Branco, date: 06/20/2022, view: 927, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Rodent spatial navigation is a key model system for studying mammalian cognition and its neural mechanisms. Of particular interest is how animals memorize the structure of their environments and compute multi-step routes to a goal. Previous work on multi-step spatial reasoning has generally involved placing rodents at the start of a maze until

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    Time-off-pick Assay to Measure Caenorhabditis elegans Motility
    Authors:  Alyssa C. Walker, Rohan Bhargava, Amanda S. Brust, Ali A. Owji and Daniel M. Czyż, date: 06/20/2022, view: 1172, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple metazoan that is often used as a model organism to study various human ailments with impaired motility phenotypes, including protein conformational diseases. Numerous motility assays that measure neuro-muscular function have been employed using C. elegans. Here, we describe “time-off-pick" (TOP), a novel

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    Anticipatory and Consummatory Responses to Touch and Food Rewards: A Protocol for Human Research
    Authors:  Emilio Chiappini, Giorgia Silani and Sebastian Korb, date: 02/20/2022, view: 793, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Understanding the neural basis of reward processing is a major concern, as it holds the key to alleviating symptoms of addiction and poor mental health. However, this goal seems difficult to attain as long as research on reward processing cannot easily be compared across species and reward types, due to methodological differences and the presence

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    A Behavioural Assay to Investigate Judgment Bias in Zebrafish
    Authors:  Felipe Espigares, Raquel R. Martins and Rui F. Oliveira, date: 02/20/2022, view: 1064, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract]

    In this protocol, we describe for the first time a judgment bias paradigm to phenotype the way zebrafish assess ambiguous stimuli. We have developed and validated a protocol for a judgment bias test based on a Go/No-go task, and performed using a half radial maze. After a habituation phase, fish are trained to discriminate between two reference

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    Induction of Repeated Social Defeat Stress in Rats
    Authors:  Soumyabrata Munshi, Alexandra Ritger and J. Amiel Rosenkranz, date: 02/05/2022, view: 988, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) is a model of chronic stress in rodents. There are several variants of social defeat procedures that exert robust effects in mice, but few published detailed protocols to produce a robust stress and altered immunological profile in rats. In this article, we describe the protocol for the induction of RSDS in

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    Protocols to Induce, Prevent, and Treat Post-traumatic Stress Disorder-like Memory in Mice: Optogenetics and Behavioral Approaches
    [Abstract]

    One of the cardinal features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a paradoxical memory alteration including both emotional hypermnesia for salient trauma-related cues and amnesia for the surrounding traumatic context. Interestingly, some clinical studies have suggested that contextual amnesia would causally contribute to the PTSD-related

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    A Simple Spatial-independent Associative and Reversal Learning Task in Mice
    Authors:  Fulvio Magara, Benjamin Boury-Jamot and Hanna Hörnberg, date: 08/05/2021, view: 1448, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The ability to adapt one's behavior in response to changing circumstances, or cognitive flexibility, is often altered in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions. In rodents, cognitive flexibility is frequently assessed using associative learning paradigms with a reversal component. The majority of existing protocols rely on

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    Ethanol-induced Sedative Behavior: An Assay to Investigate Increased Dopamine Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Anuradha Singh, Kavita Babu and Pratima Pandey, date: 07/05/2021, view: 1864, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Dopamine (DA) signaling affects locomotion, feeding, learning, and memory in C. elegans. Various assays have been developed to study the proteins involved in these behaviors; however, these assays show behavioral output only when there is a drastic change in DA levels. We designed an assay capable of observing behavioral output even with only

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    In vivo Optical Access to Olfactory Sensory Neurons in the Mouse Olfactory Epithelium
    Authors:  Shigenori Inagaki, Ryo Iwata and Takeshi Imai, date: 06/20/2021, view: 2221, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    In neuroscience, it is fundamental to understand how sensory stimuli are translated into neural activity at the entry point of sensory systems. In the olfactory system, odorants inhaled into the nasal cavity are detected by ~1,000 types of odorant receptors (ORs) that are expressed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Since each OSN expresses only

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    Operant Vapor Self-administration in Mice
    [Abstract]

    Models of drug addiction in rodents are instrumental in understanding the underlying neurobiology. Intravenous self-administration of drugs in mice is currently the most commonly used model; however, several challenges exist due to complications related to catheter patency. To take full advantage of the genetic tools available to study opioid

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