Immunology


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0 Q&A 7601 Views Jun 20, 2024

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic fusion proteins that can reprogram immune cells to target specific antigens. CAR-expressing T cells have emerged as an effective treatment method for hematological cancers; despite this success, the mechanisms and structural properties that govern CAR responses are not fully understood. Here, we provide a simple assay to assess cellular avidity using a standard flow cytometer. This assay measures the interaction kinetics of CAR-expressing T cells and targets antigen-expressing target cells. By co-culturing stably transfected CAR Jurkat cells with target positive and negative cells for short periods of time in a varying effector–target gradient, we were able to observe the formation of CAR-target cell doublets, providing a readout of actively bound cells. When using the optimized protocol reported here, we observed unique cellular binding curves that varied between CAR constructs with differing antigen binding domains. The cellular binding kinetics of unique CARs remained consistent, were dependent on specific target antigen expression, and required active biological signaling. While existing literature is not clear at this time whether higher or lower CAR cell binding is beneficial to CAR therapeutic activity, the application of this simplified protocol for assessing CAR binding could lead to a better understanding of the proximal signaling events that regulate CAR functionality.

0 Q&A 1860 Views Jun 5, 2023

Exosomes are lipid bilayer–enclosed vesicles, actively secreted by cells, containing proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and other substances with multiple biological functions after entering target cells. Exosomes derived from NK cells have been shown to have certain anti-tumor effects and potential applications as chemotherapy drug carriers. These developments have resulted in high demand for exosomes. Although there has been large-scale industrial preparation of exosomes, they are only for generally engineered cells such as HEK 293T. The large-scale preparation of specific cellular exosomes is still a major problem in laboratory studies. Therefore, in this study, we used tangential flow filtration (TFF) to concentrate the culture supernatants isolated from NK cells and isolated NK cell–derived exosomes (NK-Exo) by ultracentrifugation. Through a series of characterization and functional verification of NK-Exo, the characterization, phenotype, and anti-tumor activity of NK-Exo were verified. Our study provides a considerably time- and labor-saving protocol for the isolation of NK-Exo.




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