Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Electroporation of Small Interfering RNAs into Tibialis Anterior Muscles of Mice
    Authors:  Anna Stephan, Flavia A. Graca, Liam C. Hunt and Fabio Demontis, date: 06/05/2022, view: 760, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Aging and wasting of skeletal muscle reduce organismal fitness. Regrettably, only limited interventions are currently available to address this unmet medical need. Many methods have been developed to study this condition, including the intramuscular electroporation of DNA plasmids. However, this technique requires surgery and high electrical

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    Plasma Membrane Wounding and Repair Assays for Eukaryotic Cells
    [Abstract]

    Damage to the plasma membrane and loss of membrane integrity are detrimental to eukaryotic cells. It is, therefore, essential that cells possess an efficient membrane repair system to survive. However, the different cellular and molecular mechanisms behind plasma membrane repair have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present three complementary

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    Simple Methods for Permanent or Transient Denervation in Mouse Sciatic Nerve Injury Models
    [Abstract]

    Our ability to move and breathe requires an efficient communication between nerve and muscle that mainly takes place at the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), a highly specialized synapse that links the axon of a motor neuron to a muscle fiber. When NMJs or axons are disrupted, the control of muscle fiber contraction is lost and muscle are paralyzed.

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    Preparation of a Single Cell Suspension from the Murine Iridocorneal Angle
    Authors:  Benjamin R. Thomson and Susan E. Quaggin, date: 05/20/2022, view: 563, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Single cell RNA sequencing is a powerful tool that can be used to identify distinct cell types and transcriptomic differences within complex tissues. It has proven to be especially useful in tissues of the eye, where investigators have identified novel cell types within the retina, anterior chamber, and iridocorneal angle and explored

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    Protocol to Induce Follicular T Helper Cells, Germinal Centers, and Skin Lesions in Mouse Models for Skin Blistering Diseases
    [Abstract]

    Autoreactive T cells in autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases can be divided into two major subsets: (i) follicular T helper cells (Tfh) that provide T cell help in germinal centers (GC) and (ii) effector T (Teff) cells that immigrate into peripheral tissue sites such as the skin and mediate local inflammation. To study the sequence of events

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    Vestibular Organ Dissection and Whole-Mount Immunolabeling in Mouse
    Authors:  Timothy S. Balmer and Laurence O. Trussell, date: 05/20/2022, view: 398, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The vestibular sensory apparatus contained in the inner ear is a marvelous evolutionary adaptation for sensing movement in 3 dimensions and is essential for an animal’s sense of orientation in space, head movement, and balance. Damage to these systems through injury or disease can lead to vertigo, Meniere’s disease, and other disorders

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    Ex vivo Human Skin Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1
    Authors:  Nydia C. De La Cruz, Maureen Möckel, Lisa Wirtz and Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf, date: 05/05/2022, view: 457, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Although herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a well-studied virus, how the virus invades its human host via skin and mucosa to reach its receptors and initiate infection remains an open question. For studies of HSV-1 infection in skin, mice have been used as animal models. Murine skin infection can be induced after injection or scratching of the

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    Electrophysiological Measurements of Isolated Blood Vessels
    Authors:  Samuel A Molina, Daniela Maier-Begandt, Brant E Isakson and Michael Koval, date: 03/20/2022, view: 564, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The lumen of blood vessels is covered by endothelial cells, which regulate their permeability to ions and solutes. Endothelial permeability depends on the vascular bed and cell phenotype, and is influenced by different disease states. Most characterization of endothelial permeability has been carried out using isolated cells in culture. While

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    Trichloroacetic Acid Fixation and Antibody Staining of Zebrafish Larvae
    Authors:  E. Anne Martin, Sundas Ijaz, Alberto E. Pereda and Adam C. Miller, date: 01/20/2022, view: 1062, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Larval zebrafish have been established as an excellent model for examining vertebrate biology, with many researchers using the system for neuroscience. Controlling a fast escape response of the fish, the Mauthner cells and their associated network are an attractive model, given their experimental accessibility and fast development, driving

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    Wounding Zebrafish Larval Epidermis by Laceration
    Authors:  Andrew S. Kennard, Christopher K. Prinz, Ellen C. Labuz and Julie A. Theriot, date: 12/20/2021, view: 1422, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Wound healing is a critical process for maintaining the integrity of tissues, driven in large part by the active migration of cells to cover damaged regions. While the long-term tissue injury response over hours and days has been extensively studied, the rapid early migratory response of cells to injury in vivo is still being uncovered, especially

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