Cell Biology


Protocols in Current Issue
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0 Q&A 1450 Views Mar 20, 2024

Proliferating cells need to cope with extensive cytoskeletal and nuclear remodeling as they prepare to divide. These events are tightly regulated by the nuclear translocation of the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex, that is partly dependent on nuclear tension. Standard experimental approaches do not allow the manipulation of forces acting on cells in a time-resolved manner. Here, we describe a protocol that enables dynamic mechanical manipulation of single cells with high spatial and temporal resolution and its application in the context of cell division. In addition, we also outline a method for the manipulation of substrate stiffness using polyacrylamide hydrogels. Finally, we describe a static cell confinement setup, which can be used to study the impact of prolonged mechanical stimulation in populations of cells.

Key features

• Protocol for microfabrication of confinement devices.

• Single-cell dynamic confinement coupled with high-resolution microscopy.

• Static cell confinement protocol that can be combined with super-resolution STED microscopy.

• Analysis of the mechanical control of mitotic entry in a time-resolved manner.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 966 Views Feb 20, 2024

Mechanosensory organelles (MOs) are specialized subcellular entities where force-sensitive channels and supporting structures (e.g., microtubule cytoskeleton) are organized in an orderly manner. The delicate structure of MOs needs to be resolved to understand the mechanisms by which they detect forces and how they are formed. Here, we describe a protocol that allows obtaining detailed information about the nanoscopic ultrastructure of fly MOs by using serial section electron tomography (SS-ET). To preserve fine structural details, the tissues are cryo-immobilized using a high-pressure freezer followed by freeze-substitution at low temperature and embedding in resin at room temperature. Then, sample sections are prepared and used to acquire the dual-axis tilt series images, which are further processed for tomographic reconstruction. Finally, tomograms of consecutive sections are combined into a single larger volume using microtubules as fiducial markers. Using this protocol, we managed to reconstruct the sensory organelles, which provide novel molecular insights as to how fly mechanosensory organelles work and are formed. Based on our experience, we think that, with minimal modifications, this protocol can be adapted to a wide range of applications using different cell and tissue samples.

Key features

• Resolving the high-resolution 3D ultrastructure of subcellular organelles using serial section electron tomography (SS-ET).

• Compared with single-axis tilt series, dual-axis tilt series provides a much wider coverage of Fourier space, improving resolution and features in the reconstructed tomograms.

• The use of high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution maximally preserves the fine structural details.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 794 Views Oct 20, 2023

For the analysis of cellular architecture during mitosis, nanometer resolution is needed to visualize the organization of microtubules in spindles. Here, we present a detailed protocol that can be used to produce 3D reconstructions of whole mitotic spindles in cells grown in culture. For this, we attach mammalian cells enriched in mitotic stages to sapphire discs. Our protocol further involves cryo-immobilization by high-pressure freezing, freeze-substitution, and resin embedding. We then use fluorescence light microscopy to stage select mitotic cells in the resin-embedded samples. This is followed by large-scale electron tomography to reconstruct the selected and staged mitotic spindles in 3D. The generated and stitched electron tomograms are then used to semi-automatically segment the microtubules for subsequent quantitative analysis of spindle organization. Thus, by providing a detailed correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) approach, we give cell biologists a toolset to streamline the 3D visualization and analysis of spindle microtubules (http://kiewisz.shinyapps.io/asga). In addition, we refer to a recently launched platform that allows for an interactive display of the 3D-reconstructed mitotic spindles (https://cfci.shinyapps.io/ASGA_3DViewer/).

Key features

• High-throughput screening of mitotic cells by correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM).

• Serial-section electron tomography of selected cells.

• Visualization of mitotic spindles in 3D and quantitative analysis of microtubule organization.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 413 Views Oct 20, 2023

A fundamental understanding of gene regulation requires a quantitative characterization of the spatial organization and dynamics of chromatin. The advent of fluorescence super-resolution microscopy techniques such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) presented a breakthrough to visualize structural features with a resolution of ~20 nm in fixed cells. However, until recently the long acquisition time of super-resolution images prevented high-resolution measurements in living cells due to spreading of localizations caused by chromatin motion. Here, we present a step-by step protocol for our recently developed approach for correlatively imaging telomeres with conventional fluorescence and PALM, in order to obtain time-averaged super-resolution images and dynamic parameters in living cells. First, individual single molecule localizations are assigned to a locus as it moves, allowing to discriminate between bound and unbound dCas9 molecules, whose mobilities overlap. By subtracting the telomere trajectory from the localization of bound molecules, the motion blurring is then corrected, and high-resolution structural characterizations can be made. These structural parameters can also be related to local chromatin motion or larger scale domain movement. This protocol therefore improves the ability to analyze the mobility and time-averaged nanoscopic structure of locus-specific chromatin with single-molecule sensitivity.

0 Q&A 383 Views Oct 5, 2023

Disruptions and perturbations of the cellular plasma membrane by peptides have garnered significant interest in the elucidation of biological phenomena. Typically, these complex processes are studied using liposomes as model membranes—either by encapsulating a fluorescent dye or by other spectroscopic approaches, such as nuclear magnetic resonance. Despite incorporating physiologically relevant lipids, no synthetic model truly recapitulates the full complexity and molecular diversity of the plasma membrane. Here, biologically representative membrane models, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), are prepared from eukaryotic cells by inducing a budding event with a chemical stressor. The GPMVs are then isolated, and bilayers are labelled with fluorescent lipophilic tracers and incubated in a microplate with a membrane-active peptide. As the membranes become damaged and/or aggregate, the resulting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the two tracers increases and is measured periodically in a microplate. This approach offers a particularly useful way to detect perturbations when the membrane complexity is an important variable to consider. Additionally, it provides a way to kinetically detect damage to the plasma membrane, which can be correlated with the kinetics of peptide self-assembly or structural rearrangements.

Key features

• Allows testing of various peptide–membrane interaction conditions (peptide:phospholipid ratio, ionic strength, buffer, etc.) at once.

• Uses intact plasma membrane vesicles that can be prepared from a variety of cell lines.

• Can offer comparable throughput as with traditional synthetic lipid models (e.g., dye-encapsulated liposomes).

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 322 Views Aug 20, 2023

Genome sizes of Zygnema spp. vary greatly, being unknown whether polyploidization occurred. The exact number of chromosomes in this genus is unknown since counting methods established for higher plants cannot be applied to green algae. The massive presence of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in the cell wall interferes with the uptake of staining solutions; moreover, cell divisions in green algae are not restricted to meristems as in higher plants, which is another limiting factor. Cell divisions occur randomly in the thallus, due to the intercalary growth of algal filaments. Therefore, we increased the number of cell divisions via synchronization by changing the light cycle (10:14 h light/dark). The number of observed mitotic stages peaked at the beginning of the dark cycle. This protocol describes two methods for the visualization of chromosomes in the filamentous green alga Zygnema. Existing protocols were modified, leading to improved acetocarmine and haematoxylin staining methods as investigated by light microscopy. A freeze-shattering approach with liquid nitrogen was applied to increase the accessibility of the haematoxylin dye. These modified protocols allowed reliable chromosome counting in the genus Zygnema.

Key features

• Improved method for chromosome staining in filamentous green algae.

• Optimized for the Zygnema strains SAG 698-1a (Z. cylindricum), SAG 698-1b (Z. circumcarinatum), and SAG 2419 (Zygnema ‘Saalach’).

• This protocol builds upon the methods of chromosomal staining in green algae developed by Wittmann (1965), Staker (1971), and Fujii and Guerra (1998).

• Cultivation and synchronization: 14 days; fixation and permeabilization: 24 h; staining: 1 h; image analysis and chromosome number quantification: up to 20 h.

0 Q&A 432 Views Jul 20, 2023

Microtubule structure is commonly investigated using single-particle analysis (SPA) or subtomogram averaging (STA), whose main objectives are to gather high-resolution information on the αβ-tubulin heterodimer and on its interactions with neighboring molecules within the microtubule lattice. The maps derived from SPA approaches usually delineate a continuous organization of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer that alternate regularly head-to-tail along protofilaments, and that share homotypic lateral interactions between monomers (α-α, β-β), except at one unique region called the seam, made of heterotypic ones (α-β, β-α). However, this textbook description of the microtubule lattice has been challenged over the years by several studies that revealed the presence of multi-seams in microtubules assembled in vitro from purified tubulin. To analyze in deeper detail their intrinsic structural heterogeneity, we have developed a segmented subtomogram averaging (SSTA) strategy on microtubules decorated with kinesin motor-domains that bind every αβ-tubulin heterodimer. Individual protofilaments and microtubule centers are modeled, and sub-volumes are extracted at every kinesin motor domain position to obtain full subtomogram averages of the microtubules. The model is divided into shorter segments, and subtomogram averages of each segment are calculated using the main parameters of the full-length microtubule settings as a template. This approach reveals changes in the number and location of seams within individual microtubules assembled in vitro from purified tubulin and in Xenopus egg cytoplasmic extracts.

Key features

• This protocol builds upon the method developed by J.M. Heumann to perform subtomogram averages of microtubules and extends it to divide them into shorter segments.

• Microtubules are decorated with kinesin motor-domains to determine the underlying organization of its constituent αβ-tubulin heterodimers.

• The SSTA approach allows analysis of the structural heterogeneity of individual microtubules and reveals multi-seams and changes in their number and location within their shaft.

Graphical overview

0 Q&A 553 Views Jul 5, 2023

Eukaryotic cells use a series of membrane transporters to control the movement of lipids across their plasma membrane. Several tools and techniques have been developed to analyze the activity of these transporters in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Among them, assays based on fluorescence microscopy in combination with fluorescent lipid probes are particularly suitable, allowing visualization of lipid internalization in living cells. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for mammalian cell culture, lipid probe preparation, cell labeling, and confocal imaging to monitor lipid internalization by lipid flippases at the plasma membrane based on lipid probes carrying a fluorophore at a short-chain fatty acid. The protocol allows studying a wide range of mammalian cell lines, to test the impact of gene knockouts on lipid internalization at the plasma membrane and changes in lipid uptake during cell differentiation.

Key features

• Visualization and quantification of lipid internalization by lipid flippases at the plasma membrane based on confocal microscopy.

• Assay is performed on living adherent mammalian cells in culture.

• The protocol can be easily modified to a wide variety of mammalian cell lines.

Graphical overview

Analysis of NBD-lipid uptake in adherent mammalian cells by confocal microscopy. Scale bar, 30 μm.

0 Q&A 784 Views May 5, 2023

Visualization of cell structure with fluorescent dye for characterizing cell size, shape, and arrangement is a common method to study tissue morphology and morphogenesis. In order to observe shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis thaliana by laser scanning confocal microscopy, we modified the pseudo-Schiff propidium iodide staining method by adding a series solution treatment to stain the deep cells. The advantage of this method is mainly reflected by the direct observation of the clearly bounded cell arrangement and the typical three-layer cells in SAM without the traditional tissue slicing.

0 Q&A 2909 Views Nov 5, 2022

Cryo-focused ion beam (FIB) milling of vitrified specimens is emerging as a powerful method for in situ specimen preparation. It allows for the preservation of native and near-native conditions in cells, and can reveal the molecular structure of protein complexes when combined with cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. Cryo-FIB milling is often performed on plunge-frozen specimens of limited thickness. However, this approach may have several disadvantages, including low throughput for cells that are small, or at low concentration, or poorly distributed across accessible areas of the grid, as well as for samples that may adopt a preferred orientation. Here, we present a detailed description of the “Waffle Method” protocol for vitrifying thick specimens followed by a semi-automated milling procedure using the Thermo Fisher Scientific (TFS) Aquilos 2 cryo-FIB/scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrument and AutoTEM Cryo software to produce cryo-lamellae. With this protocol, cryo-lamellae may be generated from specimens, such as microsporidia spores, yeast, bacteria, and mammalian cells, as well as purified proteins and protein complexes. An experienced lab can perform the entire protocol presented here within an 8-hour working day, resulting in two to three cryo-lamellae with target thicknesses of 100–200 nm and dimensions of approximately 12 μm width and 15–20 μm length. For cryo-FIB/SEMs with particularly low-contamination chambers, the protocol can be extended to overnight milling, resulting in up to 16 cryo-lamellae in 24 h.

Graphical abstract:

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