Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Analysis of Heterocyst and Akinete Specific Glycolipids in Cyanobacteria Using Thin-layer Chromatography
    Authors:  Ritu Garg, Rebeca Perez and Iris Maldener, date: 03/20/2022, view: 863, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Several filamentous cyanobacteria like Nostoc differentiate specialized cells in response to changes in environmental factors, such as low light or nutrient starvation. These specialized cells are termed heterocysts and akinetes. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, nitrogen-fixing heterocysts form in a semi-regular pattern and provide the

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    Electron Tomography to Study the Three-dimensional Structure of the Reovirus Egress Pathway in Mammalian Cells
    [Abstract]

    Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses that replicate and assemble in cytoplasmic membranous organelles called viral inclusions (VIs). To define the cellular compartments involved in nonlytic reovirus egress, we imaged viral egress in infected, nonpolarized human brain microvascular endothelial cells

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    Rice Root Hair Phenotypes Imaged by Cryo-SEM
    [Abstract]

    Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was first introduced for scientific use in the 1980s. Since then, cryo-SEM has become a routine technique for studying the surfaces and internal structures of biological samples with a high water content. In contrast to traditional SEM, cryo-SEM requires no sample pretreatment processes; thus, we can

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    Preparation of Doublet Microtubule Fraction for Single Particle Cryo-electron Microscopy
    Authors:  Corbin Black, Daniel Chen Dai, Katya Peri, Muneyoshi Ichikawa and Khanh Huy Bui, date: 06/05/2021, view: 2840, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Over the years, studying the ultrastructure of the eukaryotic cilia/flagella using electron microscopy (EM) has contributed significantly toward our understanding of ciliary function. Major complexes in the cilia, such as inner and outer dynein arms, radial spokes, and dynein regulatory complexes, were originally discovered by EM. Classical

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    Automated Analysis of Cell Surface Ruffling: Ruffle Quantification Macro
    Authors:  Nicholas D. Condon, Jennifer L. Stow and Adam A. Wall, date: 01/20/2020, view: 3577, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Cell surface protrusions include F-actin rich, wave-like ruffles that are erected transiently in response to stimuli and during cell migration. Macrophages are innate immune cells that ruffle constitutively and more dramatically in cells activated by pathogens. Dorsal ruffles and their resulting macropinosomes are key sites for environmental ...
    High Throughput Traction Force Microscopy for Multicellular Islands on Combinatorial Microarrays
    Authors:  Ian C. Berg and Gregory H. Underhill, date: 11/05/2019, view: 4800, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The composition and mechanical properties of the cellular microenvironment along with the resulting distribution of cellular devolved forces can affect cellular function and behavior. Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) provides a method to measure the forces applied to a surface by adherent cells. Numerous TFM systems have been described in ...
    Cell Wall Compositional Analysis of Rice Culms
    Authors:  Lanjun Zhang, Baocai Zhang and Yihua Zhou, date: 10/20/2019, view: 3380, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant cell wall is a complicated network that is mainly constituted of polysaccharides, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Many noncellulosic polysaccharides are further acetylated, which confers these polymers flexible physicochemical properties. Due to the significance of cell wall in plant growth and development, the analytic ...
    Non-invasive Quantification of Cell Wall Porosity by Fluorescence Quenching Microscopy
    Authors:  Xiaohui Liu, Thomas Günther Pomorski and Johannes Liesche, date: 08/20/2019, view: 4366, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] All bacteria, fungi and plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall. This complex network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins provides mechanical support, defines cell shape, controls cell growth and influences the exchange of substances between the cell and its surroundings. Despite its name, the cell wall is a flexible, dynamic structure. ...
    An Image Analysis Pipeline to Quantify Emerging Cracks in Materials or Adhesion Defects in Living Tissues
    Authors:  Stéphane Verger, Guillaume Cerutti and Olivier Hamant, date: 10/05/2018, view: 5020, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Microcracks in materials reflect their mechanical properties. The quantification of the number or orientation of such cracks is thus essential in many fields, including engineering and geology. In biology, cracks in soft tissues can reflect adhesion defects, and the analysis of their pattern can help to deduce the magnitude and orientation of ...
    Sleeping Beauty Transposon-based System for Rapid Generation of HBV-replicating Stable Cell Lines
    Authors:  Jin-Wei Zheng, Jia-Li Cao and Quan Yuan , date: 07/05/2018, view: 7328, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The stable HBV-transfected cell lines, which based on stable integration of replication-competent HBV genome into hepatic cells, are widely used in basic research and antiviral drug evaluation against HBV. However, previous reported strategies to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which primarily rely on random integration of exogenous DNA by ...



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