Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Protocol to Isolate Germinal Centers by Laser Microdissection
    Authors:  Farbod Bahreini, Markus Niebuhr, Julia Belde, Jürgen Westermann and Kathrin Kalies, date: 06/05/2022, view: 663, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    During adaptive immune responses, germinal centers (GC) appear as transient microstructures, in which antigen-specific B and T cells interact with each other. Because only the antigen-activated B and T cells, such as Plasmablasts or follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, are present in GC, the in depth-analysis of GC is of great interest. To identify

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    Restimulation-Induced Cell Death (RICD): Methods for Modeling, Investigating, and Quantifying RICD Sensitivity in Primary Human T Cells via Flow Cytometric Analysis
    Authors:  Katherine Pohida, Camille M. Lake, Debra Yee and Andrew L. Snow, date: 02/20/2022, view: 1336, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    When the body mounts an immune response against a foreign pathogen, the adaptive arm of the immune system relies upon clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cell populations to exercise acquired effector and cytotoxic functions to clear it. However, T cell expansion must be modulated to effectively combat the perceived threat without inducing

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    Investigation of Microvesicle Uptake by Mouse Lung-marginated Monocytes in vitro
    Authors:  Ying Ying Tan, Kieran P. O'Dea, Brijesh V. Patel and Masao Takata, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1679, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are released into the circulation in large numbers during acute systemic inflammation, yet little is known of their intravascular cell/tissue-specific interactions under these conditions. We recently described a dramatic increase in the uptake of intravenously injected MVs by monocytes marginated within the

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    Isolation of Microvesicles from Human Circulating Neutrophils
    [Abstract]

    Neutrophil-derived microvesicles (NDMVs) are liberated by neutrophils upon cell activation by molecules. Once activated, neutrophils are primarily involved in acute inflammation; however, the microvesicles they produce are largely anti-inflammatory. NDMVs have been shown to protect cartilage during inflammatory arthritis. They exert these effects

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    Isolation and Quantification of Mouse γδT-cells in vitro and in vivo
    Authors:  Isha Rana, Krithika Badarinath, Ravindra K. Zirmire and Colin Jamora, date: 09/05/2021, view: 2012, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    The skin plays an important role in protecting the body from pathogens and chemicals in the external environment. Upon injury, a healing program is rapidly initiated and involves extensive intercellular communication to restore tissue homeostasis. The deregulation of this crosstalk can lead to abnormal healing processes and is the foundation of

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    Preparation of Drosophila Larval Blood Cells for Single-cell RNA Sequencing
    Authors:  Sudhir Gopal Tattikota and Norbert Perrimon, date: 08/20/2021, view: 1744, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Recent advances in single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies provide unprecedented opportunities to identify new cell types and characterize cell states. One of the most important requirements for performing scRNA-seq is to obtain high-quality single cells in suspension. Recently, we used this approach to characterize Drosophila blood

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    Isolation of Microglia and Analysis of Protein Expression by Flow Cytometry: Avoiding the Pitfall of Microglia Background Autofluorescence
    Authors:  Jeremy C. Burns, Richard M. Ransohoff and Michaël Mingueneau, date: 07/20/2021, view: 3224, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Microglia are a unique type of tissue-resident innate immune cell found within the brain, spinal cord, and retina. In the healthy nervous system, their main functions are to defend the tissue against infectious microbes, support neuronal networks through synapse remodeling, and clear extracellular debris and dying cells through phagocytosis. Many

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    Production, quantification, and infection of Amazonian Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae)
    [Abstract]

    Phlebotomine vectors, sand flies of the order Diptera, are known to transmit Leishmania parasites as well as RNA viruses (arboviruses) to humans. The arbovirus, Icoaraci Phlebovirus (BeAN 24262 - ICOV), used in this study was isolated from Nectomys rodents, a mammalian species that is the same natural sylvatic reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania)

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    Murine Monocyte and Macrophage Culture
    Authors:  Simone M. Haag and Aditya Murthy, date: 03/20/2021, view: 6494, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow generate monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and most dendritic cells. Even though these innate immune cells are part of the same lineage, each cell type plays a specific and critical role in tissue development, host defense and the generation of adaptive immunity. Protocols have been developed in the past

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    Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages
    Authors:  Gretchen L. Seim, Steven V. John and Jing Fan, date: 07/20/2020, view: 5039, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Macrophages are highly plastic immune cells that are capable of adopting a wide array of functional phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli. The changes in macrophage function are often supported and regulated by changes in cellular metabolism. Capturing a comprehensive picture of metabolism is vital for understanding the role of metabolic ...



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