We performed an advanced search of ClinicalTrials.gov. First, we searched the database for trials that included the PubMed MeSH terms “heart disease” and “stem cell,” and performed a radiation search by matching each term with “condition or disease” and “intervention/treatment,” respectively. We retrieved relevant trials that were registered from database inception to October 1, 2020. For all retrieved trials, we recorded the unique identification code (NCT number), title, start date, completion date, location, status, study results, funding, phase, study design, conditions, interventions, outcome measures, sex, age, sample size, and uniform resource location (URL). Duplicates and irrelevant trials were eliminated. We also excluded trials in which the heart diseases were relieved by the treatment of diseases in other body systems, such as treating pulmonary fibrosis to reduce pulmonary hypertension and treating kidney disease to improve heart function. If there was unclear or missing information, the researchers entered the URL and NCT number into the database to confirm and supplement this information. After that, we searched articles by NCT numbers for analyzing efficacy and safety of stem cell therapy. All abovementioned steps were independently completed by two researchers. Any controversy was resolved by a third researcher.

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