The elevated plus maze (EPM) task was run as a measure for anxiety-like behavior (Walf and Frye 2007). The maze consisted of two open arms (no vertical walls) and two closed arms (enclosed in vertical walls). All arms intersect at a center platform, to form the plus shape. The maze was constructed of black Plexiglas raised 51 cm above the ground, with each arm measuring 51 × 11 cm and with a center of 11 × 11 cm. A single, 5-min trial was run at each time (baseline and postsurgical), which began by placing the rat in the center of the maze, facing a closed arm, and allowing it to explore. The trial was recorded using an overhead camera and TopScan tracking software. This software tracked the nose of the animal throughout the trial and calculated time spent in the open arms, closed arms, and center. Higher anxiety is indicated by a less amount of time spent in the openarms.

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