We collected participants’ data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), cerebrovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, domain scores of physical functioning and mental health of 12-item short-form (SF-12) [19]. Scores of physical functioning and mental health were expressed as norm-based scores. Cerebrovascular disease was investigated by a self-administered questionnaire about history of cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as presenting one or more positive response to three questions on cognitive functions in the Kihon Checklist [13]: (1) “Do your family or your friends point out your memory loss?” (For example, “You ask the same question over and over again.”) (2) “Do you make a call by looking up phone numbers?” (3) “Do you find yourself not knowing today’s date?”

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