The eligible participants were randomly assigned to three groups: the cognitive training group, aerobic exercise group and control group. Cognitive training comprised of memory exercises (including verbal memory, episodic memory, and face-name association memory), reasoning, problem-solving/strategy, and visuospatial ability (map reading). Each session lasted 60 min. Participants in the aerobic exercise group began with a 10-min brisk walk and gradually increased their walking time by 5 min each week until a total of 45 min is accomplished. Before and after each brisk walk, participants performed a five-minute stretch exercise to warm up and cool down. Participants wore a wrist heart rate monitor (Mio Alpha, Physical Enterprises Inc.) during brisk walking to monitor heart rate changes in real time. Both intervention groups received a total quorum of 24 sessions over 12 weeks and all three groups attended lectures on healthy living monthly during the first 3 months and every 6 weeks thereafter until the 12-month follow-up.

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