The measures for loneliness and psychosocial functioning were included in the study as averaged items scores. The averaged items scores were calculated for participants with a maximum of two missing item scores per measure.

At age 9, loneliness was measured with the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire (LSDQ; Asher and Wheeler, 1985). The LSDQ consists of 24 items, 16 primary items that measure children’s feelings of loneliness (e.g., “I have no one to talk to in class”) and 8 filler items about various topics aimed to help children feel more relaxed (e.g., “I watch TV a lot”). The items were rated on a five-point rating scale ranging from untrue (1) to always true (5). At age 13 and 16, loneliness was measured using a subscale of the Louvain Loneliness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LLCA; Marcoen et al., 1987). This subscale contained 12 items describing feelings and thoughts of peer-related loneliness (e.g., “I think I have fewer friends than others”). Participants rated the items on a 4-point rating scale ranging from never (0) to often (3). At age 21, participants completed the Roberts UCLA Loneliness Scale (RULS; Russell et al., 1980). The RULS consists of 20 items (e.g., “I do not feel alone”) which participants rated on a 5-point rating scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Loneliness scores of the different measures were rescaled to enable cluster analysis.

Psychosocial functioning is defined as depression, anxiety, and self-esteem similar to Vanhalst et al. (2013a). Depression, anxiety, and self-esteem were measured at age 9 and 21. At age 9, anxiety was measured using the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS; Reynolds and Richmond, 1979). Children rated six items on the level and nature of anxiety (e.g., “I worry a lot”) with two answer categories: This is true (1), or this is not true (2). At age 9, depression was measured using the Short Depression Inventory for Children (SDIC; De Wit, 1987). Children rated nine items on depressive symptoms (e.g., “I have been feeling sad lately”) with two answer categories: This is true (1), or this is not true (2). At age 21, anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; Arrindell and Ettema, 2004). Participants rated whether they had experienced each of the subscales’ symptoms during the past week on a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The subscales contain 10 and 16 symptoms for anxiety (e.g., “worrying too much about things”) and depression (e.g., “feeling low in energy or slowed down”), respectively.

At age 9, self-esteem was measured using a subscale of the CBSK, which is the Dutch version of Harter’s self-esteem scale (The Self-Perception Profile for Children; Harter, 1985; Veerman et al., 1996). Participants rated six items (e.g., “I like the person I am”) on a 4-point scale ranging from never (1) to always (4). Self-esteem at age 21 was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965; Franck et al., 2008). The scale consists of 10 items (e.g., “On the whole, I am satisfied with myself”) which participants rated on a 4-point scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4).

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