All data are presented as mean ± SEM, either as the experimental readings or after normalization to baseline values, and then expressed as a percentage. All experiments were conducted in triplicate unless specified, and were performed on at least two independent occasions. Comparisons between two groups were analyzed by unpaired two-sided Student’s t-test with Welch’s correction while one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s post-hoc test was performed for comparing more than two groups. Statistical analyses were conducted using GraphPad Prism version 8.1.2 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA), and p < 0.05 was considered as the cutoff for statistical significance.

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