Fresh peanuts were shelled in advance, and all processing implements and surfaces were washed and sanitized with 1% sodium hypochlorite before use. Peanut kernels were weighed into a set of beakers (100 seeds per beaker) and surface-sanitized in 500 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. After washing and rinsing the seeds with sterilized deionized water, the samples were sonicated in a US cleaner bath (KQ-300VDE, Kunshan Ultrasonic Instrument Co., Ltd., Kunshan City, China) for 30 min at 35 °C, 100 kHz, and 240 W. After US treatment, peanuts were imbibed for 6–8 h at 25 °C in the dark. Control kernels were treated identically but were not subjected to US treatment.

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