The primary outcomes were body fat percentage and cardiorespiratory endurance. Secondary outcomes were blood glucose level, insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), muscle strength, and cholesterol level. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed before and after the exercise programs. Cardiorespiratory endurance was evaluated using a YMCA 3-minute step test. Muscle strength was assessed using the Baseline hydraulic grip handheld dynamometer, model 12-0240 (Fabrication Enterprises, Inc). Body fat percentage was measured using the Lunar iDXA dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer (GE Healthcare). All the tests were conducted before and after the intervention. Both cardiorespiratory and muscle strength assessments were performed by trained researchers at a study hospital site. Safety events and drug adjustments were recorded for both groups.

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