H-Ras 12V transgenic mice were kindly provided by Professor Dae-Yeul Yu of Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. Transgenic lines were established by mating these mice with C57BL/6 mice. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with forward primer 5′-CTAGGGCTGCAGGAATTC-3′ and reverse primer 5′-GTAGTTTAACACATTATACACT-3′. PCR in transgenic mice yielded a 711 bp product.23 All mice were fed a standard normal diet ad libitum with free access to water. Only male mice were used for experiments, and the mice were housed in a specific pathogen-free facility for up to 13 months to allow sufficient incubation time required for spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis (Fig. 1).

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