Behavioral data was analyzed using R Studio (Version 1.1.453; R Core Team, 2020; R version 3.5.0) complemented by afex (Singmann & Klauer, 2020), car (Fox & Weisberg, 2019), corpora (Evert, 2015), Hmisc (Harrell, 2019), lmtest (Zeileis and Hothorn, 2002), and psych (Revelle, 2020). For statistical analyses, psychometric data and demographic information was standardized or centered when appropriate. Spearman rank correlations of the age‐normed combined score of preliterate measures (BISC risk score for dyslexia; Jansen, 2002) collected at T1, and the age‐normed reading and spelling tests (T2) were computed. To account for multiple testing, Holm‐corrected P‐values are reported.

For the fMRI regression analyses, results of the two RAN subtests (objects, colors; BISC, Jansen, 2002) were combined by taking the mean. Likewise, one metric was formed as an indicator of reading fluency (cf. Karipidis et al., 2018) consisting of word and pseudoword reading of the SLRT‐II (Moll & Landerl, 2010). Furthermore, studentized residuals of z‐standardized PA, RAN and reading fluency were computed to control for confounding effects of sex and non‐verbal intelligence before being entered into the regression.

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