Data are expressed as mean ± standard error (mean ± SE). The Anderson–Darling test was used to assess the normality of the data. All experimental data were non-normal. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test for differences between two paired samples. When there were more than two paired samples, the Friedman test was used, and the Tukey method was used for subsequent comparisons. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used for more than two independent samples, and the Tukey method was used for subsequent comparisons. The two-sample Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to determine whether data distributions differed between two groups. P <0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. For correlation analysis, we calculated the absolute value of Pearson's linear correlation coefficient:

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