Mice were briefly anesthetized with pentobarbital (0.09 mg/g bodyweight, i.p.). Depth of anesthesia was verified by toe pinch. Next, each mouse was mounted in a stereotaxic frame and the fur on the surface of the scalp from the midline of the orbits to the midpoint between the ears was removed. A hole was drilled above the right OB for the implantation of opto-tetrodes (4.2 mm anterior from bregma, 1.0 mm lateral from the midline). One screw hole was drilled into the parietal bone to serve as the ground and reference electrode in spike and LFP recordings.

Opto-tetrodes were implanted into the OB with the aim of simultaneously recording Ca2+ signals, single-unit spikes, and LFPs. The opto-tetrodes were lowered to the lateral mitral cell layer at an average depth of 1.8–2.0 mm. Recordings were made during opto-tetrode implantation to ensure optimal placement within the lateral mitral cell layer. The signals recorded from the tetrodes were sent to a headstage, amplified by a 16-channel amplifier (Plexon DigiAmp; bandpass filtered at 1–5000 Hz; 2000× gain), and then sampled at 40 kHz by a Plexon OmniPlex recording system. In order to secure mice in the head-fixed recording system, an aluminum head plate was attached to the skull with stainless steel screws and dental cement.

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