The opto-tetrodes included one optical fiber and four tetrodes. The optical fiber (200 μm O.D., NA = 0.37, 18.5 mm long) was coupled with a ferrule (10.5 mm long; 2.5 mm in diameter). Each tetrode consisted of four polyamide-coated nichrome wires (single-wire diameter, 12.7 μm; coating 1/4 hard PAC; Sandvik, RO–800, item # PF000591) gold-plated to an impedance of 0.2–0.3 MΩ. The tetrodes and optical fiber together were inserted into tubing (450 μm O.D., 320 μm I.D., 9.0 mm long, A-M Systems), which was glued to an EIB-16 interface board (Neuralynx). The ends of the tetrodes were connected to the interface board with gold pins (large size, Neuralynx); the shafts were glued to the side of the optical fiber and then the tetrodes were cut so that the tetrode tips and the optical fiber tip were at the same level.

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