In total, 22 pairs of ccRCC and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from patients subjected to radical nephrectomy between January and October 2013 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. Written informed consent was acquired from each patient, and the Institutional Ethics Committee in the hospital approved this study. The human ccRCC cell lines 786-O, ACHN, and caki-1 and the normal kidney cell line HK-2 were purchased from Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology (Shanghai, China). Total RNA was extracted with TRIzol reagent (Takara) and then reverse-transcribed into cDNA by using PrimeScript RT Reagent Kit (Takara). The CARS relative expression was detected by RT-qPCR, through using the SYBR Premix Ex Taq (Takara) and ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). GAPDH was used as an endogenous normalization reference. All patients' clinical information and primers used are shown in Supplementary Tables 2, 3.

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