HFFs (ATCC CCL-171) were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM; Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen), 10 mM HEPES buffer pH 7.2, 2 mM l-glutamine and 50 μg ml−1 of penicillin and streptomycin (Invitrogen). Cells were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO. The Toxoplasma strains that were used in this study (listed in Supplementary file 6) were maintained in vitro by serial passage on monolayers of HFFs. The cultures were free of mycoplasma, as determined by qualitative PCR.

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