Demographic data, medication use, past medical history, family history of premature CVD, smoking habits, and educational level were acquired by validated and interviewer-administered questionnaires at visits. Weight was recorded by a digital scale to the nearest 100 g while participants had minimal clothes without shoes. Also, we assessed height without shoes in a standing position. Body mass index (BMI) was considered as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. After 15 min of rest, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were considered the mean of the two physician-measured blood pressure on the right arm using a standard sphygmomanometer. Morning blood samples were collected from all participants after at least 12 h of fasting. Participants without a history of using GLDs took orally 82.5 g glucose monohydrate solution (equivalent to 75 g anhydrous glucose), and their blood sample was taken after 2 h to assess 2-h post-challenge plasma glucose (2h-PCPG). The measurements of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2h-PCPG, total cholesterol, and serum creatinine were performed by standard methods, as previously explained [21].

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