Each experiment was performed three times independently. Data were presented as mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.0. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze the statistical significance among the groups. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant (ns, p > 0.05; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001).

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