The repellent formula was provided by Endura S.p.A. (Italy). It did not contain any fragrances, and the co-formulants were alcohol based. The active substance was 15% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET; CAS number 134-62-3), which was chosen because it is one of the most widely marketed chemical-based insect repellents. It has been in use worldwide since the 1950s (Fradin and Day 2002), and the WHO (2009) recommends that it be employed as the positive control when evaluating topical repellents. Because of its long history of use, DEET has become the gold standard against which other repellents are compared, and it has been employed in tests with many types of arthropods (Debboun et al. 2014). The percentage of DEET was chosen to ensure that the repellent would result in more than 8 h of CPT at the highest dose, which facilitated comparisons among laboratories.

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