The work conducted herein was approved by the ethics committee of Henkel AG & Co. KGaA. It met the company’s corporate standards, which ensure health, safety, and respect for the environment as well as the protection and ethical treatment of all study participants. Participants (aged 18–55 yr) were recruited and signed a written informed consent form, which explained the purpose and procedures of the study as well as their role and responsibilities and the voluntary right to refuse or withdraw from the study at any point. As per EU guidelines, participants were asked to avoid the use of nicotine, alcohol, fragrances (perfumes, body lotions, soap, etc.), and repellents for 12 h prior to and during testing (ECHA 2018a).

Thirty participants, 10 per laboratory, took part in each phase. During AIC testing, 16 of the participants were male and 14 were female; in the RT, 14 of the participants were male and 16 were female. Prior to testing, the skin to be exposed was washed with unscented soap, rinsed with water, rinsed with 70% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, and then dried with an uncontaminated towel (ECHA 2018a). Between exposure periods, study participants remained in air-conditioned rooms and kept their activity levels low.

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