Constructs of all four materials were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (FEI Inspect F50 FE-SEM) after a full culture period. Briefly, scaffolds were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and subsequently underwent a drying process and were coated with platinum sputter as previously described (Kemmenoe and Bullock, 1983). Empty scaffolds were also scanned as controls. Morphological characteristics of the constructs, infused β-TCP minerals and attached cells were imaged using SEM parameters of low voltage 5 kV on high resolution setting. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted to identify and verify the presence of calcium phosphate particles on the surface of Lactoprene 100M-TCP and Lactoprene 7415-TCP constructs after printing.

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