The strains used in this study were kept in the Culture Collection of Food Microorganisms (CCFM) of Jiangnan University (Wuxi, Jiangsu, China).

Lactobacillus strains were cultured at 37 °C for 16 h under aerobic conditions with de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) broth (Sinopharm Chemical Reagent, Shanghai, China). Bifidobacterium strains were cultured at 37 °C for 30 h under anaerobic conditions with modified MRS broth containing 0.05% (w/v) L-cysteine-HCl (Sinopharm Chemical Reagent). Detailed information on the probiotics is shown in Table 1. The strains were cultured for three generations and centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 10 min (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany) to remove the supernatant. The strains were washed with phosphate buffered-saline (PBS, Sinopharm Chemical Reagent) three times and then resuspended in normal saline at a concentration of 5 × 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL.

Information of strains.

CCFM: The Culture Collection of Food Microorganisms of Jiangnan University (Wuxi, Jiangsu, China).

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