The drug concentration gradient generator and tumor cell culture assay chip were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using the standard soft lithography technology. Specifically, first, we had drawn the desired channel pattern using CAD software and printed as a photomask. Then, the negative photoresist SU-8 was spin-coated on a silicon wafer (40 μm thickness of the gradient generator and 100 μm thickness of the tumor cell culture assay). After prebaking, UV light exposure, postbaking, and developing, the negative replicas of the designed microstructure were created on the silicon wafer. The PDMS prepolymer was mixed with a curing reagent (10:1 mass ratio), poured onto the wafer, and cured in a drying oven (80 °C) for 60 min, and the PDMS layer was peeled off from the wafer. Holes were drilled at the inlet and outlet locations by using biopsy punch. Finally, the PDMS layer gradient generator chip was bonded into a clean glass slide for studying the effect of different concentrations of anti-tumor drugs on the blood vessel, or the PDMS layer of the gradient generator chip (80 °C drying oven, 30 min) (top layer) was thermally bonded to the PDMS layer of the tumor cell assay chip (bottom layer) for studying the accumulative effect of different concentrations anti-tumor drugs and the tumor cell on the blood vessel.

For building a circular cross-sectional microvascular model, we used microwire molding technology. This method used a microstainless steel wire (1 mm diameter) with the circular cross section as the mold. PDMS was poured, cured in a drying oven (80 °C) for 60 min, and then, the stainless steel wire was removed and cut into small pieces encompassing the entire channel structure. The straight microchannel with the circular cross section could be completed.

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