A total of 32 patients with GC at the General Surgery Department of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (Hangzhou, China) were selected from January 2019 to December 2019. There were 18 males and 14 females with an age range of 34–76 years (average age 61.5 years old). The fresh operative GC tissues and corresponding para-cancerous tissues were collected. The pathological stage was determined according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union against Cancer (UICC) seventh edition TNM staging system (19). The inclusion criteria were as follows: i) radical gastrectomy or palliative surgery for GC and pathological diagnosis was GC; ii) preoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were not performed; iii) complete clinicopathological data were available. The exclusion criteria were as follows: i) gastric cancer recurrence or residual gastric cancer; ii) combined with organ dysfunction or other tumors. All patients provided written informed consent prior to participation and the present study was approved by the Institutional Review Board from Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (approval no. 20210429-30).

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