The core research team, which included 3 patient research partners, collated the material from the focus groups and workshops, and iteratively coded, categorized, and thematically analyzed the characteristics defining main attributes of hope, as well as promoters and inhibitors of hope. In keeping with the divergent (research, synthesis) and convergent (ideate, prototype) phases of a user-centered design approach [13,14], early themes were shared back to participants at subsequent sessions while continuing to iteratively explore hope attributes, promoters, and inhibitors from as many different perspectives as possible. The key domains were then organized within a socio-ecologic model according to structural, interpersonal, and intrapersonal levels of influence [15]. Concepts were then further categorized as promoters and inhibitors of hope within domains for each level. The prototype representations of hope and the model of hope influences were presented to the CIC Research Committee and in one final session with patients and caregivers to obtain any last feedback, which was then incorporated into the final model.

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