All patients with more than 1 year follow up in outpatient visits were enrolled. Patients requiring medium to high dose ICS and LABA or leukotriene modifier/theophylline for the previous year, or those treated with systemic corticosteroids for more than half a year to prevent from becoming uncontrolled, or those remaining uncontrolled despite this therapy were further included in the study as severe asthma patients. Patients fulfilling at least one of the following criteria are defined as uncontrolled asthma: (1) having ACQ score > 1.5 or ACT score < 19, (2) treated with two or more bursts of systemic corticosteroids, (3) having at least one hospitalization, ICU stay or mechanical ventilation in the previous year, (4) having FEV1 < 80% predicted after appropriate bronchodilator withheld and with reduced FEV1/FVC.

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