About 15,000 cells were seeded in each well in a 96-well plate. After overnight incubation, cells were treated with FBS-dispersed BGNPs for 24 h. Cells were washed twice with RPMI supplemented with 50% FBS in order to remove free BGNPs, and then were irradiated with an 808 nm NIR laser at 3.3 and 6.6 W cm−2 for 1 or 3 min. At the end of irradiation, the medium was removed and cells were incubated for 3, 6, or 24 h according to experimental exigences for the analysis.

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