The analysis was carried out using the CPS DC24000 UHR ultrahigh resolution particle analyzer (CPS Instrument Inc., Prairieville, LA, USA). DCS measurements were performed using 8–24% sucrose density gradient in ultraclean deionized water (or in PBS when measuring BGNPs stability in FBS) with a disc speed of 18,000 rpm. PVC standard particles (0.483 µm, Analytik Ltd., Jena, Germany) were employed to calibrate the instrument before each sample measurement.

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