Data of 542 patients who underwent laparoscopic RP for prostate cancer between January 2010 and March 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with neoadjuvant therapy before surgery; (2) patients who had undergone transurethral resection of the prostate; (3) patients with unidentifiable lesions on MRI; (4) patients whose pathological results were not prostatic adenocarcinoma; and (5) incomplete follow-up data. Follow-ups were performed every 3 months for the first 2 years, semi-annually for the third and fourth year, and annually thereafter.

The suspicious tumor lesions were identified according to comprehensive understanding of T2-weighted images, diffusion weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient maps of MRI. MTD was defined as the largest tumor diameter of index lesion on axial T2-weighted images. For multifocal cases, only the largest tumor nodule was measured for analysis. PSA nadir was defined as the lowest level of serum PSA in the first two follow-ups after RP without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or radiotherapy. BCR was defined as post-operative PSA value >0.20 ng/mL in two consecutive measurements, and the recurrence date was assigned to the day when PSA value >0.20 ng/mL was measured for the first time. BCRFS was calculated from date of RP to date of documented BCR or date of last follow-up for those patients who did not experience BCR. Other clinical and pathological data, such as age at RP, body mass index (BMI), pre-operative PSA, Gleason score, SM, ECE, SVI, and LNI, were also collected for each patient.

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