The functional connectivity between habenula and cortical areas was investigated using coherence analysis, which provides a frequency-domain measure of the degree of co-variability between signals (Litvak et al., 2010; Neumann et al., 2015). The time-varying cross-trial coherence between each MEG sensor and the habenula LFP was first calculated for each emotional valence condition. For this, time-frequency auto- and cross-spectral densities in the theta/alpha frequency band (5–10 Hz) between the habenula LFP and each MEG channel at sensor level were calculated using the wavelet transform-based approach from −2000 to 4000 ms for each trial with 1 Hz steps using the Morlet wavelet and cycle number of 6. Cross-trial coherence spectra for each LFP-MEG channel combination were calculated for each emotional valence condition for each habenula using the function ‘ft_connectivityanalysis’ in Fieldtrip (version 20170628). Stimulus-related changes in coherence were assessed by expressing the time-resolved coherence spectra as a percentage change compared to the average value in the −2000 to −200 ms (pre-stimulus) time window for each frequency. Secondly, we determined the time window of interest by statistically comparing the sensor-level coherence between stimulus conditions. Third, cortical sources coherent with habenula-LFP activity in the determined frequency band and time window were located using DICS beamformer for each stimuli condition (Gross et al., 2001; Litvak et al., 2011).

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