To test the proposed research model, we used established scales that have been validated in previous studies. Except for demographics, use behavior (binary), and control variables (gender, age, education), the participants rated all items on 5-point Likert scales. Intention to use was measured by a 3-item scale [52]. For initial trust in the Corona-Warn-App, we built on a 5-item scale developed by Koufaris and Hampton-Sosa [58]. Trust in government was examined through a 4-item scale adapted from Bélanger and Carter [53]. Transparency (reflecting individuals’ perceptions of information quality) was adopted from Schnackenberg et al [63], and each dimension was based on 4 items. Privacy risks was measured on a 5-item scale developed by Rauschnabel et al [44], and a 5-item measure was adopted from Featherman and Pavlou [89] to assess performance and social risks. Finally, general COVID-19 concerns were measured through a 6-item scale by Conway et al [45].

We calculated differences for the four dimensions of risk perceptions between the two survey waves to measure the change in the perceived risk assessments. The differences were calculated using the following formula: difference variables = risk perception(t1) – risk perception(t2). The means, SDs, and correlations for all constructs are reported in Table 3. Age, gender, and education were used as controls.

Mean, SD, and correlations.

aNot applicable.

Before conducting the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, we tested the reliability and validity of the measurement model. One item displayed poor factor loadings and was dropped (TR_5). All other factor loadings exceeded the threshold of 0.6. Internal consistency and composite reliability were assumed, as the Cronbach alpha met the quality criteria of >.7, and the average variance extracted exceeded 0.5 [90,91]. Composite reliability of all items exceeded the cut-off value of 0.6 [92]. The final questionnaire with all constructs, related survey items, their sources, and the aforementioned indexes is presented in Multimedia Appendix 2 [44,45,52,53,58,63,89,93].

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