This study investigates the global coastal area to mitigate the effects of global warming and the rapidly rising concentrations of GHGs; there is no one specific region examined here. Because global warming is a worldwide and important issue, it is not possible to reduce it or climate change by adopting some control strategies that are applicable to only one nation or region. In this study, we consider two control strategies, namely coastal greenbelt and desulfurization to diminish global warming and this means shrinking the concentrations of emitted GHGs. The coastal greenbelt can be applied to any coastal region where afforestation is lacking. The strategy plays a significant role in reducing global warming and climate change by absorbing atmospheric CO2. Meanwhile, desulfurization can be adopted by many industries because it is vital to end the release of harmful sulfur components into the air.

For parametric estimates and relevant data collection, we consider the top GHGs producing countries. The considered countries are China, United States, European Union (27), India, Russia, and Japan [17] (their annual emissions of GHGs are represented in Figure A2, Appendix A). In this case, we first studied in-depth the relationships between rapid global warming, concentrations of GHGs, and types of coastal ecosystems. Following this, we gathered relevant data and/or environmental factors from research papers, articles, monographs, annual reports, etc., of governmental and non-government organizations [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28]. Then, we did a detailed statistical analysis of the collected data after observing carefully the system, processes, and corresponding data, etc., to obtain the parametric values. All the parametric values used in this study are secondary or estimated data. These parameters are displayed in Table 1 with the corresponding descriptions and numerical values. By comparing the numerical results with others, the parametric values are verified and then described in Section 4.

An explicit description of the parameters used in this study including numerical values.

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