The detailed protocol of this assay was outlined in a previous manuscript [26]. Tests were performed in three replicates for all types of materials.

Fresh donor blood was pumped through the tubular graft with an inner diameter of 1.8 mm using a custom-made test bench consisting of two syringes moving synchronously while pumping blood through a vascular graft (VG) located between them for 30 min at 24 mL/min. The concentration of D-dimers and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was measured using kits from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH (Marburg, Germany) against untreated blood. Tests were performed in three replicates for all types of vascular grafts.

For SEM, samples after interaction to blood were prepared as described above for materials with endothelial cells.

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