The online survey included 30 questions that were pretested with eight employees working in a different hospital: 2 physicians, 2 nurses, 4 employees from other professions, e.g., administrative, social work, pharmacy), to ensure that they were relevant to hospital staff during the crisis. We conducted two online discussions using a Delphi method process. Based on the eight employees’ responses during the discussions, we arrived at a consensus regarding the finalized survey.

The questionnaire included nine sections, and each section comprised several questions/statements which the respondent was required to answer or rate, using a Likert scale, ranging from (1) not at all to (5) to a very great extent, plus the option “not relevant”:

Have you treated/are you directly treating COVID-19 patients at work?

Demographics—gender, age, profession, family status, children, was in quarantine, or has been infected with COVID-19 or been tested for COVID-19.

Self-assessment of personal coping with the pandemic—two statements. Reliability α = 0.88. Sample statement: “On a personal level, I am dealing well with the pandemic.”

Concerns regarding the COVID-19 crisis on an individual level—two statements. Reliability α = 0.55. Sample statement: “I am concerned for my health.”

Concerns regarding the COVID-19 crisis on a family level—three statements. Reliability α = 0.65. Sample statement: “I am concerned for my family members’ health.”

Concerns regarding the COVID-19 crisis on an organizational level—four statements. Reliability α = 0.82. Example statement: “I am concerned about the shortage of beds to accommodate all patients.”

Concerns regarding the COVID-19 crisis on a national level—four statements. Reliability α = 0.63. Example statement: “I am concerned about infection rate in Israel.”

Perceptions of crisis management—three statements. Reliability α = 0.73. A high score indicated more positive perceptions. Example statement: “I support the way in which the country has handled the crisis so far.”

Burnout—three statements examined the degree of emotional exhaustion. Reliability α = 0.82. A high score indicated a high level of burnout. Example statement: “I feel burnt out from coping with the crisis.”

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